Filling

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Filling

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Filling
Daunen Füllung

Are there synthetic down available in the market?

The term “synthetic down“ is an improper, misleading invention and must not be used in advertisements for bedding products.
 
According to a decision by the Provincial High Court of Appeal in Stuttgart, Germany, it is illegitimate to use the term “synthetic down“ in advertisements for bedding products. The Federal Court did not accept the appeal of the defendant.
The term “synthetic down“ is an improper, misleading invention and must not be used in advertisements for bedding products.
 
According to a decision by the Provincial High Court of Appeal in Stuttgart, Germany, it is illegitimate to use the term “synthetic down“ in advertisements for bedding products. The Federal Court did not accept the appeal of the defendant. (OLG Stuttgart (Provincial High Court of Appeal in Stuttgart) 2 U 86/99 - BGH, decision dated 21st September 2000, 1 ZR 287/99)
 
The court stated that the use of the specification “synthetic down“ is a consumer deception. Since the term “down“ has always been used to label a top-quality natural product, you could get the impression that “synthetic down” are natural down which have been treated with additives. In fact, in the case of the matter of dispute, the material contained 100 % of high-bulk polyester hollow fibres and did not offer any of the essential characteristics of natural down deriving from waterfowl.
 
As we have been informed by the associations of manufacturers of down-and feather-filled bedding products, synthetic-filled products have not acquired the properties of down, so far. Therefore, in future the consumer can take it that only those products may be labelled as down that really deserve it, that is to say incomparable top-quality natural products.
 
For this reason the term “down“ combined with the term “synthetic“ is deceptive, since it suggests to the consumer that synthetic material is similar to down which is a product of nature.
Also in the future, the consumer can expect that only pure down which earn the reputation, that is to say the top-quality unique product of nature, may be labelled as down.
 
Further information at DOWNAPEDIA:
Füllung

Are synthetic filling fibres available which are similar to down?

A filling “similar to down” consisting of micro fibres based on Dacron polyester has been made available under the brand name “Suprelle Micro“.

A filling “similar to down” consisting of micro fibres based on Dacron polyester has been made available under the brand name “Suprelle Micro“.

 
The above-mentioned description shows that down is a filling material for bedding products which leads the way and is a measure for other materials.
Obviously, down fillings offer such an excellent sleeping comfort so that it is time and again tried to model the characteristic properties of down. The term “similar” implies that the product “is close” to the natural product down. The term “similar to wood” does not signify that it is real wood. And a reproduction of wood is no real wood either.
 
The manufacturer still must prove that his products really have properties which are comparable to down. Following the information obtained from the association of manufacturers of down-and-feather-filled bedding products, nobody has been able to prove it so far.

 


Further information at DOWNAPEDIA:
Federn Füllung

Do chicken feathers also suit as filling material for duvets?

Down and feathers offer excellent insulating properties due to their capacity to “fluff up”. This property is also referred to as “fill power“ that is to say the capacity to unfold the largest possible volume again and again at the same time imbedding millions of insulating air pockets.
 
Goose and duck feathers have a curved elastic shaft, the so-called quill.
Down and feathers offer excellent insulating properties due to their capacity to “fluff up”. This property is also referred to as “fill power“ that is to say the capacity to unfold the largest possible volume again and again at the same time imbedding millions of insulating air pockets.
 
Goose and duck feathers have a curved elastic shaft, the so-called quill.
 

Chicken feathers, however, have a flat shape. The main part of the quill is flat, i.e. the firm shaft in the middle. They are not resilient enough to “fluff up“ again, for instance after having been compressed by the human body. Therefore, they are less suitable as filling material for pillows and duvets than the plumage of waterfowl.

In order to receive a good heat-insulating effect with chicken feathers, a relatively great amount of filling material is necessary – so the duvet is quite heavy and often regarded as a burden by the sleeper.

 

Further information at :

Füllung

What do the terms „waterfowl“ / „landfowl“ stand for?

In a wider sense, waterfowls are bird species whose habitat is especially contingent on waters. In relation to bedding products, only ducks or geese are regarded as “waterfowl”. Only their plumage is suitable as filling material for bedding products.
 
In the area of bedding products, especially chicken and turkeys are understood as landfowl (also “pawing poultry”). Their feathers – they do not posses any down – are not suitable for bedding products due to their small filling power.
 
In a wider sense, waterfowls are bird species whose habitat is especially contingent on waters. In relation to bedding products, only ducks or geese are regarded as “waterfowl”. Only their plumage is suitable as filling material for bedding products.
 
In the area of bedding products, especially chicken and turkeys are understood as landfowl (also “pawing poultry”). Their feathers – they do not posses any down – are not suitable for bedding products due to their small filling power.
 
Füllung

What is meant by “poultry“?

Poultry characterises “those bird species which are kept as livestock as well as pets (domestic poultry) […]”
(translated from: Brockhaus Studienausgabe, 2001, 20., revised and updated edition, volume 8, p. 230).
 
Poultry characterises “those bird species which are kept as livestock as well as pets (domestic poultry) […]”
(translated from: Brockhaus Studienausgabe, 2001, 20., revised and updated edition, volume 8, p. 230).
 
Füllung

What is meant by fill power?

Fill power has nothing to do with filling weight. It defines the bulking capacity which means the ability to expand back to the original volume after having been exposed to pressure.
Fill power has nothing to do with filling weight. It defines the bulking capacity which means the ability to expand back to the original volume after having been exposed to pressure.
 
Down and feathers can be strongly compressed which means that they have a very small volume under pressure. When the pressure – for example through the weight of a human body – stops, they will quickly recover their old shape. One can crush them countless times and they will always recover their old shape, since they are very resilient. Thereby they constantly form air-filled pockets which ensure the heat- insulating effect.
 
There are different procedures for the measurement of the fill power:
 
The exact requirements for the measurement of the fill power are defined in the European standard EN 12130.
 
According to that, fill power is specified as “height of the volume occupied by filling material subjected to a specific pressure, expressed in millimetres”. (EN 12130).
 
The feathers and down are filled into a measuring cylinder and at first loosened by air which is blown in during a fixed period. Afterwards, a pressing plate and a measuring stick are set into the cylinder. The pressing plate compresses the feathers/down and moves downward. After a fixed period of time one can read off at which figure the pressing plate has stopped. This height (in millimetres) is read off at the measuring stick. Fill power is therefore expressed in millimetres.
 
This testing method is an important precondition for the producer to evaluate the quality of feathers and down.
 
This testing method is an important precondition for the producer to evaluate the quality of feathers and down. Fill power is the necessary prerequisite for “warmth without weight”. Therefore, a high fill power of bedding products is an especially important quality feature.
 
  Further information at DOWNAPEDIA:
Füllung

What is meant by fill weight?

Fill weight defines the weight of the filling (fill mass) of a bedding product as for instance a duvet or a pillow.
The fill weight is not identical with the total weight as the weight of the textile cover, the shell, also has to be added to it.
 
In general, a higher fill weight means a higher degree of insulating capacity. Then again, the duvet should not be too heavy, burden the sleeper but adapt optimally to the body. That is the reason why down duvets are so popular: Down are very much lighter than feathers.
Fill weight defines the weight of the filling (fill mass) of a bedding product as for instance a duvet or a pillow.
The fill weight is not identical with the total weight as the weight of the textile cover, the shell, also has to be added to it.
 
In general, a higher fill weight means a higher degree of insulating capacity. Then again, the duvet should not be too heavy, burden the sleeper but adapt optimally to the body. That is the reason why down duvets are so popular: Down are very much lighter than feathers. Despite the same weight, they have a much larger volume and can enclose a high amount of air which is a poor heat conductor. The result: Down are light but at the same time they offer excellent thermal insulation properties.
Fill weight is not to be confused with fill power.
 
When buying a duvet, one should pay attention to a suitable proportion of fill weight and total weight.
A duvet consists of the fill weight and the weight of the cover, the so-called shell. A low fill weight of down and/or feathers combined with a heavy cover makes a heavy total weight with only a minor insulating capacity. This means an unnecessarily high weight while asleep.
 

 

Further information at :

 

 

Federn Daunen Füllung

How are down and feathers processed into bedding articles?

The raw down and feathers must be processed before they may be used as filling material for bedding articles.
First of all, the raw down and feathers are cleaned of coarse dirt. Then they are placed in special washing machines and undergo 6 to 8 washing cycles using a specific detergent suitable for bedfeathers.
The raw down and feathers must be processed before they may be used as filling material for bedding articles.
First of all, the raw down and feathers are cleaned of coarse dirt. Then they are placed in special washing machines and undergo 6 to 8 washing cycles using a specific detergent suitable for bedfeathers.
 
In a next step, the down and feathers are dried and sterilized in a steamer at temperatures exceeding 100 °C.
After the drying process they are placed in the dedusting machine to remove fine dust which has not yet been cleared during the washing cycles and are cooled down to normal temperature.
Finally, the down and feathers are sorted. The basic types obtained from sorting are used to confect special down and feather blends according to the customer´s order.
 

The requirements for the hygienic state of the filling material are specified in EN 12935. The Daunasan® / Downafresh® brand indicates that bedding articles labelled with this brand are consistently monitored by means of mystery shopping to ensure at the best that products labelled with Daunasan® / Downafresh® meet the hygiene requirements.

Further information at :

 

Federn Daunen Füllung

How can down and feathers be sorted?

In the separation process down and feathers are sorted with the aid of air which is blown into a special sorting machine consisting of three or four chambers. The airflow generated in the machine achieves that due to gravity the single components fly different distances. The lightest components fly the longest distance and the heaviest elements fly the shortest distance. Correspondingly, the lightest parts, i. e. the down, fly the longest distance and get into the posterior chamber whereas the heaviest parts, i. e.
In the separation process down and feathers are sorted with the aid of air which is blown into a special sorting machine consisting of three or four chambers. The airflow generated in the machine achieves that due to gravity the single components fly different distances. The lightest components fly the longest distance and the heaviest elements fly the shortest distance. Correspondingly, the lightest parts, i. e. the down, fly the longest distance and get into the posterior chamber whereas the heaviest parts, i. e. the feathers, do not get any farther than the first chamber.
 
The different components can be separated by varying the intensity of the airflow.
 
Hüllen Füllung

What is meant by “bed ticking“ and “cambric“?

Down and feathers must be filled into a tightly woven, but at the same time breathable shell. The shell must safely prevent the filling components (for instance parts of down and feathers) from penetrating the fabric. Furthermore, it shall support the properties of the filling materials such as regulation of humidity and breathability.
 
On the other hand, no parts from outside (e. g. skin scales or house dust mites) should get into the filling.
Down and feathers must be filled into a tightly woven, but at the same time breathable shell. The shell must safely prevent the filling components (for instance parts of down and feathers) from penetrating the fabric. Furthermore, it shall support the properties of the filling materials such as regulation of humidity and breathability.
 
On the other hand, no parts from outside (e. g. skin scales or house dust mites) should get into the filling. This aspect is crucial, since a top-quality fabric is the basis ensuring that the bedding article is suitable for house dust mite allergy sufferers.
 
To ensure ideal sleeping comfort the shells must be breathable so that the humidity absorbed by the filling can be transmitted outwards. Cotton is the most suitable raw material forming the basis for shells.
Depending on the range of quality medium or long-stapled grades of maco cotton are employed.
 
Maco is an extra fine, silky sort of cotton (for instance Egyptian maco cotton) which is spun from an extra long staple and more valuable than other grades of cotton. Fine threads are spun from Maco cotton which are suited for the production of most delicate tickings and cambric fabrics. A distinction is made between short-stapled (ca. 22 mm), medium-stapled (22-29 mm) and long-stapled (30-35 mm) cotton. The long-stapled sorts of cotton offer top quality fabrics.
 
Down-proof fabrics are characterised by their special delicacy, lightness and drape-ability.
 
A distinction is made between
 

Ticking (also called twill): Fabric mainly used for pillows. It is spun in twill weave.

Twill weave means that two thirds of the softer and more voluminous weft yarn are situated on the left side which later faces the down and feathers.
When using the bedding article the soft weft yarn at the inner surface ensures a fine felting of the cloth which is even intensified by small parts of the feather filling and thus enhances the density of the fabric.

 

 

 

 

Cambric (also called Percale): Fabric mainly used for quilts. Cambric is woven in plain weave.


Plain weave is the simplest, the oldest and at the same time the most tightly woven fabric.
 
In this mode of weaving, each warp thread and weft thread are crossed over. .
 
The yarn count is crucially important with down-proof fabrics. The figure indicating the fineness is called yarn count (Nm). The higher the yarn count, the more delicate and lighter is the fabric. The application of very fine yarns allows to keep the fabric pores as small as possible to prevent down particles from penetrating the shell fabric.

The yarn count of high-quality fine fabrics ranges between 70 to 100 Nm.

The yarn notation stands for the proportion between the barrel length and the weight of the material (yarn thickness).

Example: Yarn notation Nm 50 signifies that one kilogramme of this yarn has a barrel length of 50 000 metres. The finest yarn notation used for cambric fabrics is Nm 135, i. e. 1 kilogramme of such yarn has a barrel length of 135 000 metres.