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(c) Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd.
17.05.2022

Cinte Techtextil China to address personal hygiene and sustainability demands

With global consumers becoming more conscious about personal hygiene and environmental protection, exhibitors at Cinte Techtexil China will spotlight materials and technologies for products that respond to these trends. The fair will probe into the associated growth opportunities as the country is one of the leading markets for nonwovens and technical textiles. The event will be held from 6 – 8 September at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.

The technical textiles and nonwovens industries, the latter notably, are significantly expanding amid the pandemic. A recent forecast[1] predicts that the global polypropylene nonwoven fabric market will continue to rise at a CAGR of 6.7%, reaching USD 39.23 billion by 2028. The anticipated growth is bolstered by demands in end-use industries such as sanitation, medical, automotive and more. In 2020, Asia Pacific was named the largest regional market in the world and is expected to grow significantly over the forecasted period.

With global consumers becoming more conscious about personal hygiene and environmental protection, exhibitors at Cinte Techtexil China will spotlight materials and technologies for products that respond to these trends. The fair will probe into the associated growth opportunities as the country is one of the leading markets for nonwovens and technical textiles. The event will be held from 6 – 8 September at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.

The technical textiles and nonwovens industries, the latter notably, are significantly expanding amid the pandemic. A recent forecast[1] predicts that the global polypropylene nonwoven fabric market will continue to rise at a CAGR of 6.7%, reaching USD 39.23 billion by 2028. The anticipated growth is bolstered by demands in end-use industries such as sanitation, medical, automotive and more. In 2020, Asia Pacific was named the largest regional market in the world and is expected to grow significantly over the forecasted period.

The prediction reaffirms the growth prospects of nonwovens. In this regard, industry players expressed much optimism about associated future opportunities during Cinte Techtextil China last year. “The field of nonwovens is poised for a positive growth as the awareness of personal hygiene and pandemic prevention sustains in the domestic market,” commented Mr James Gao, Head of Marketing and Textile Technologies, Uster Technologies (China) Co Ltd. He added: “We decided to join the fair and showcase our new launches as we remain confident in the future development of the industry, especially since China is dominating the global scene.”

Going green is the way forward
Turning to yarns and fibres, the sector is shifting to greener and smarter production that echoes the trend towards sustainability that is gaining considerable traction across the globe. Meanwhile in China, this movement was observed by many exhibitors at the 2021 edition, including Mr Roberto Galante, Plant Manager of FMMG Technical Textiles (Suzhou) Co Ltd, the Chinese subsidiary of the Fil Man Made Group. He mentioned: “The market is paying more attention to environmental protection, and we receive enquiries about special yarns for this every day. We focus on technical yarns for filtration as well as anti-bacterial properties, which are very important for the environment. The potential here in China is incredible and this is a big opportunity for everybody.”

Cinte Techtextil China’s product categories cover 12 application areas, which comprehensively span across a full range of potential uses in modern technical textiles and nonwovens. These categories also cover the entire industry, from upstream technology and raw material providers to finished fabrics, chemicals and other solutions. This scope of product groups and application areas ensures that the fair is an effective business platform for the entire industry.

Quelle:

Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd

Mobiles Robotersystem zum automatisierten Bestücken eines Spulengatters (c) STFI
12.05.2022

STFI mit nachhaltigen und digitalen Innovationen auf der Techtextil 2022

Das Sächsische Textilforschungsinstitut e.V. zeigt auf der Techtextil 2022, der internationalen Messe für technische Textilien und Vliesstoffe, innovative Highlights aus Forschung und Entwicklung. Neben einer kettengewirkten textilen Fassadenbegrünung im Modulsystem und textilen Leichtbauelementen für den Baubereich aus Hanf als nachwachsendem Rohstoff präsentiert das STFI auch Neues aus der Vliesstoffforschung. Für die Vliesstoffkompetenz steht das Projekt optiformTEX, bei dem für die Halbzeugherstellung im Automobilsektor die Flächenmasse gezielt beeinflusst wurde. Des Weiteren stellt das Chemnitzer Institut eine ökologische Schaumbeschichtung für Schutztextilien aus. Zentrales Highlight des STFI-Messeauftritts ist darüber hinaus ein mobiles Robotersystem, das ein automatisiertes Bestücken eines Spulengatters im Kleinformat zeigt.

Das Sächsische Textilforschungsinstitut e.V. zeigt auf der Techtextil 2022, der internationalen Messe für technische Textilien und Vliesstoffe, innovative Highlights aus Forschung und Entwicklung. Neben einer kettengewirkten textilen Fassadenbegrünung im Modulsystem und textilen Leichtbauelementen für den Baubereich aus Hanf als nachwachsendem Rohstoff präsentiert das STFI auch Neues aus der Vliesstoffforschung. Für die Vliesstoffkompetenz steht das Projekt optiformTEX, bei dem für die Halbzeugherstellung im Automobilsektor die Flächenmasse gezielt beeinflusst wurde. Des Weiteren stellt das Chemnitzer Institut eine ökologische Schaumbeschichtung für Schutztextilien aus. Zentrales Highlight des STFI-Messeauftritts ist darüber hinaus ein mobiles Robotersystem, das ein automatisiertes Bestücken eines Spulengatters im Kleinformat zeigt.

Highlights auf der Techtextil 2022
Die begrünte Fassadenkachel ist ein System, mit dem durch einen einfachen, modularen Segmentaufbau großflächige Gebäudeflächen kostengünstig begrünt werden können. Neben einer Gebäudedämmung soll das System den gestalterischen Ansprüchen einer modernen Innenstadt entsprechen. Durch eine Funktionsintegration in die textile Trägerschicht und abgestimmte Pflanzenauswahl wird eine wartungsarme Begrünung möglich.

Formbauteile aus Vliesstoffen kommen zunehmend im Automobilbereich zum Einsatz. Konventionelle Vliesstoffe haben aktuell gleichmäßige Flächenmassen. Technische Lösungen zur lastgerechten Bauteilverstärkung und der daraus resultierende optimierte Materialeinsatz stellen ein enormes wirtschaftliches Potenzial dar. Die Grundidee von „optiformTEX“ war daher die Flächenmassenverteilung im Flor vor der Halbzeugverfestigung gezielt zu beeinflussen. Im Ergebnis wurde ein textiltechnologisches Verfahren und die zugehörige Anlagenkomponente erfolgreich entwickelt, die sowohl für synthetische als auch für Naturfaserstoffe geeignet sind.

Zukunftsweisende Materialien bieten Entwicklungen aus dem Bereich nachwachsender Rohstoffe in Kombination mit biobasierten Harzsystemen: im Projekt „Gro-Coce“ wurde durch die Verbindung nachhaltiger Bauprodukte und -weisen ein innovatives Deckensystem entwickelt. Gegenwärtig entwickelt das Projektteam ein hochleistungsfähiges Hanfbasthalbzeug sowie die Schritte zu dessen reproduzierbare Herstellung mittels textiler Flächenbildung. Erste Applikations- und Belastungstests der Hanfbasthalbzeuge an Holzbalken konnten das hohe Leistungspotenzial der Naturfasermaterialien bestätigen.

Spezielle Funktionstextilien basieren auf Verbundmaterialien mit Beschichtungen oder Membranen. Die bisherige Herstellung der Beschichtungen/Membranen birgt häufig ökologische und gesundheitliche Risiken. Am STFI wurden daher lösemittelfreie, rein wässrige Beschichtungssysteme sowie eine Technologie zu deren Applikation für den Schutztextilbereich entwickelt, woraus eine atmungsaktive, wasserdichte und waschpermanente Textilbeschichtung resultiert.

Zentrales Highlight des STFI-Messeauftritts ist ein mobiles Robotersystem, das automatisiertes Bestü-cken eines Spulengatters im Kleinformat zeigt. Der Roboter ist am STFI Teil der „Textilfabrik der Zukunft“, in welcher eine Spielmatte gewebt und Schritt für Schritt entlang der textilen Kette weiterverarbeitet wird.

(c) 2022, SSM
07.04.2022

Swiss Textile Machinery members at Techtextil

High-performance yarns now offer almost unlimited possibilities for replacing traditional raw materials in a vast range of technical applications. Often tailor-made, these filament yarns go way beyond the conventional idea of ‘textiles’ – finding new uses in sectors such as automotive, aviation, maritime, medical and construction, among many others.

Technical textiles are everywhere in our daily lives today, even if we may not always realize it. Some are in more obviously textile products, from sewing threads to artificial turf. But then, take cars as an example: modern vehicles are stuffed with parts made from sophisticated yarns. It’s common for producers of automotive parts now to send template material and requirement lists to Swiss Textile Machinery members, trusting their expertise and experience. Members operate development and testing centers with latest machine installations, where their experts devise customized solutions, as well as calling on the pure innovative spirit which is part of their DNA.

High-performance yarns now offer almost unlimited possibilities for replacing traditional raw materials in a vast range of technical applications. Often tailor-made, these filament yarns go way beyond the conventional idea of ‘textiles’ – finding new uses in sectors such as automotive, aviation, maritime, medical and construction, among many others.

Technical textiles are everywhere in our daily lives today, even if we may not always realize it. Some are in more obviously textile products, from sewing threads to artificial turf. But then, take cars as an example: modern vehicles are stuffed with parts made from sophisticated yarns. It’s common for producers of automotive parts now to send template material and requirement lists to Swiss Textile Machinery members, trusting their expertise and experience. Members operate development and testing centers with latest machine installations, where their experts devise customized solutions, as well as calling on the pure innovative spirit which is part of their DNA.

At the extremes
Technology drives applications beyond our current imagining in the case of Heberlein air splicers. Developed for a wide range of uses with high-strength technical fibers, they have no problems splicing aramid fibers up to 16’100 dtex, carbon up to 30’000 dtex, Dyneema up to 5’500 dtex, and glass up to 4’800 tex. Using compressed air, the splicers produce a tear-resistant, homogeneous splice of material without interfering knots.

Retech has the technology to achieve specifications for filament yarns, drawing and stretching fibers to perfection. Top heated godet rolls – many customized – are developed for high-performance fibers. Temperatures up to 400 °C can be achieved. Combining the right settings and wide speed ranges for each specific process results in unique end-products.

Fabric producers of high-end applications must avoid any quality risk. Yarn producers are well aware of this responsibility, so they use precision package winders for technical yarns, developed by Rieter’s subsidiary SSM. Taking yarns from ring twisting bobbins, its specialist finish winders can produce coarse-count technical yarns up to 50’000 dtex, offering a new level of flexibility and winding quality.

Lifestyle essentials
At first glance, motorists might fail to notice many of the technical yarns ‘hidden’ inside their cars. These products have functions such as providing stability with hardly any weight, or absorbing tensile forces at defined elongation. This kind of controlled elongation behaviour, for example, arises from the choice of textile material and the special construction of the yarns used.

Such specifications make twisting and cabling machines essential for the automotive industry. Saurer offers machines for the production of technical yarns made from a variety of feed materials in a very wide yarn count range. They are needed for vehicle products such as tire carcasses, toothed engine belts, seat belts, airbags and lorry tarpaulins.

Technical yarns also play a surprising role in our mobile devices. Tapping, scrolling and swiping are second nature for billions, with our phones and a plethora of other lifestyle essentials. Yet, how many people would know that the touch-sensitivity we take for granted on these screens is largely made possible by twisted glass fibers. Bräcker, part of Rieter’s components business, offers a selection of vertical sinter metal rings and nylon travelers for glass fiber twisting, so that mills can achieve high levels of productivity and quality.

Future unlimited
Automotive and communication technology are already important industries for Swiss Textile Machinery members, along with well-known technical textiles markets in sectors such as medical, transport and construction. Smart-wear is already noted as a field with significant potential. Naturally, members are constantly investigating other possibilities. Swiss textile machinery is already applied in energy (batteries), and plastics.

The Swiss Textile Machinery Pavilion will be at the Techtextil exhibition in Frankfurt, Germany, taking place from 21 to 24 June 2022.

Quelle:

Swiss Textile Machinery

31.03.2022

Monforts at Techtextil North America

Monforts will highlight its advanced finishing and coating technologies for the production of technical textiles at Techtextil North America, which takes place at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta from May 17-19.

The company and its US representative PSP Marketing, of Charlotte, North Carolina, will be part of the centrepiece VDMA German Pavilion at the show.

Energy prices
With energy prices continuing to go through the roof, an emphasis at Techtextil North America will be on the energy and heat recovery that can be achieved with Montex stenters, through features such as the MonforClean system, in which waste heat from the drying process is used to pre-heat the drying air. This results in a radical reduction in the conventional heat supply required. A range of further resource-saving and energy recovery options can be specified per individual line installation.

Monforts will highlight its advanced finishing and coating technologies for the production of technical textiles at Techtextil North America, which takes place at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta from May 17-19.

The company and its US representative PSP Marketing, of Charlotte, North Carolina, will be part of the centrepiece VDMA German Pavilion at the show.

Energy prices
With energy prices continuing to go through the roof, an emphasis at Techtextil North America will be on the energy and heat recovery that can be achieved with Montex stenters, through features such as the MonforClean system, in which waste heat from the drying process is used to pre-heat the drying air. This results in a radical reduction in the conventional heat supply required. A range of further resource-saving and energy recovery options can be specified per individual line installation.

Advanced machine operation
With the highly intuitive Qualitex 800 visualization software, all article-specific settings can be stored and the formulations for thousands of treatment processes called up again at any time. Individual operators can also personalise their dashboards with the most important machine functions and process parameters.

The Qualitex 800 system is available for the automatic and continuous operation of the company’s Montex stenters, as well as its Thermex continuous dyeing ranges, Monfortex shrinking systems and Montex®Coat coating units.

Versatility is the key
Monforts Montex®Coat coating units serve an equally diverse number of markets, including tents, tarpaulins and awnings, black-out roller blinds and sail cloth, automotive interior fabrics and medical disposables. Full PVC coatings, pigment dyeing or minimal application surface and low penetration treatments and solvent coatings (in explosion-proof conditions) with knife coating, roller coating or screen printing can all be accommodated with this system.

Quelle:

AWOl Media / A. Monforts Textilmaschinen GmbH & Co. KG

(c) Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd.
21.01.2022

Promising conditions for Cinte Techtextil China in September

Promising conditions in the technical textiles and nonwovens market are expected to provide ample opportunities for suppliers at this year’s Cinte Techtextil China. The fair, which last year saw 366 exhibitors and 14,868 visits, will take place from 6 – 8 September 2022 at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre. Flexible exhibiting options will once again be available for overseas companies.

Ms Wendy Wen, Senior General Manager of Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, explained the positive conditions that exhibitors should expect at the fair thusly: “The pandemic has led to a surge in Chinese exports of both technical textiles and nonwovens, the latter in particular. The country remains the largest supplier of nonwovens, comprising one-third of the global total, yet still requires the advanced offerings of overseas machinery suppliers, as well as supplies of raw materials, to support its export production.”

Promising conditions in the technical textiles and nonwovens market are expected to provide ample opportunities for suppliers at this year’s Cinte Techtextil China. The fair, which last year saw 366 exhibitors and 14,868 visits, will take place from 6 – 8 September 2022 at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre. Flexible exhibiting options will once again be available for overseas companies.

Ms Wendy Wen, Senior General Manager of Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, explained the positive conditions that exhibitors should expect at the fair thusly: “The pandemic has led to a surge in Chinese exports of both technical textiles and nonwovens, the latter in particular. The country remains the largest supplier of nonwovens, comprising one-third of the global total, yet still requires the advanced offerings of overseas machinery suppliers, as well as supplies of raw materials, to support its export production.”

Ms Wen continued: “Domestically, China is seeing increasing consumption of functional apparel, sportswear and personal protection items. Heightened health and sanitary regulations and new hygiene habits will also continue to drive demand, especially for nonwovens, well into the future. There has also been a post-pandemic boost in demand for filter, greenhouse covering and high-density fabrics amongst others. All of this adds up to a wealth of opportunities for overseas companies to take advantage of, as was experienced in the 2021 edition of the fair.”

Exhibitor and visitor experiences in 2021
“Our organisation promotes US cotton and we hope to use this platform to meet more companies and brands in the nonwovens industry who are interested in US cotton, and to meet up with old friends to discuss the current situation and industry trends. We also found some new potential clients this time.” Mr Eric Ni, Senior Manager, China Supply Chain Marketing, Fabrics, Garments and Nonwovens, Cotton Council International, USA

“Cinte Techtextil China is a professional exhibition that brings together cutting-edge technologies and products, allowing us to quickly learn about innovative technology trends in the industry. I’ve been particularly impressed by the biodegradable products in the Innovation Showcase. In addition, I am sourcing mask-related products and mops, and I have found some companies that I’m interested in.” Ms Claire Zhang, Senior Scientist, Personal Health, Philips Research China, Philips (China) Investment Co Ltd, China

Quelle:

Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd.

14.10.2021

Monforts: Automated finishing at Knopf’s Sohn

Knopf’s Sohn, a contract finisher of technical textiles, has installed a fully automated Montex stenter at its plant in Helmbrechts, Germany.
Knopf’s Sohn is processing technical textiles for the automotive, aerospace, home furnishings and workwear markets, based on wool, cellulose, polyamide and polyester fabrics, along with elastane blends, in weights of 80-800gsm.

The Montex machinery range is constantly being upgraded to meet evolving customer needs for greater automation, ease of operation and energy optimisation. The latest ten chamber line at Knopf’s Sohn, with a working width of up to 2.0 metres, was engineered to specific requirements in order to accelerate the company’s move to fully automatic control of its production, and high scaffolding was required for its installation.

The line benefits from two integrated ECO Booster modules to provide high energy savings. These compact, air-to-air heat exchangers, installed within the roof structure of the line, exploit energy from the exhaust gas to preheat up to 60% of the incoming fresh air entering the stenter.

Knopf’s Sohn, a contract finisher of technical textiles, has installed a fully automated Montex stenter at its plant in Helmbrechts, Germany.
Knopf’s Sohn is processing technical textiles for the automotive, aerospace, home furnishings and workwear markets, based on wool, cellulose, polyamide and polyester fabrics, along with elastane blends, in weights of 80-800gsm.

The Montex machinery range is constantly being upgraded to meet evolving customer needs for greater automation, ease of operation and energy optimisation. The latest ten chamber line at Knopf’s Sohn, with a working width of up to 2.0 metres, was engineered to specific requirements in order to accelerate the company’s move to fully automatic control of its production, and high scaffolding was required for its installation.

The line benefits from two integrated ECO Booster modules to provide high energy savings. These compact, air-to-air heat exchangers, installed within the roof structure of the line, exploit energy from the exhaust gas to preheat up to 60% of the incoming fresh air entering the stenter.

The use of a single ECO Booster unit has been calculated to save up to 35% in energy costs, based on fixation processes. Fully automatic operation, set at the Monforts Qualitex control unit, ensures there is no additional burden on the machine operator.

The line is powered by Exxotherm indirect heating, which practically eliminates the yellowing which can be experienced during the treatment of certain polyamide and elastane-based fabrics, and is also equipped with a Conticlean circulating air filter system for constant high drying capacity.

Software
The latest Qualitex visualisation software offers operators reliability and easy control with its full HD multi-touch monitor and slider function, dashboard function with individual adaptation to operating states and faster access to comprehensive recipe data management.

With the Monformatic control system, the exact maintenance of the dwell time in combined treatment processes (drying and heat-setting) can be monitored. When the heat-setting point is reached, the fan speed is automatically adjusted, keeping energy consumption fully under control.

Quelle:

A. Monforts Textilmaschinen GmbH & Co. KG / AWOL Media

Design, e-commerce and sustainable development highlights of Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles fringe programme (c) ITSH20
29.09.2021

Design, e-commerce and sustainable development highlights of Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles fringe programme

The rescheduled Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles, now taking place from 9 – 11 October, will once again provide the industry with insight into the future through its fringe programme’s four categories: Design Inspiration, Business O2O, Textiles & Technologies and Industry Empowerment. And with the Online Business Matching sourcing platform returning this edition, buyers worldwide can still participate in the fair.

Each of the fringe programme’s four categories – Design Inspiration, Business O2O (online to offline), Textiles & Technologies and Industry Empowerment – features a mix of conferences, seminars and presentations that reflect the future of the home textile industry. Highlights of each category are included below, while further details can be found on the fair’s website: https://intertextile-shanghai-hometextiles-autumn.hk.messefrankfurt.com/shanghai/en/programme-events.html.

The rescheduled Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles, now taking place from 9 – 11 October, will once again provide the industry with insight into the future through its fringe programme’s four categories: Design Inspiration, Business O2O, Textiles & Technologies and Industry Empowerment. And with the Online Business Matching sourcing platform returning this edition, buyers worldwide can still participate in the fair.

Each of the fringe programme’s four categories – Design Inspiration, Business O2O (online to offline), Textiles & Technologies and Industry Empowerment – features a mix of conferences, seminars and presentations that reflect the future of the home textile industry. Highlights of each category are included below, while further details can be found on the fair’s website: https://intertextile-shanghai-hometextiles-autumn.hk.messefrankfurt.com/shanghai/en/programme-events.html.

Since 2019, Messe Frankfurt has been working with the Conscious Fashion Campaign and United Nations Office for Partnerships as part of the Texpertise Network and supports the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The goals will be presented gradually at global textile events in order to highlight the most pressing challenges facing the textile and fashion industry worldwide.

Industry Empowerment: antimicrobial technologies and licensing in the home textile sector

Growing awareness of health and hygiene has increased the demand for antimicrobial and other functional textiles. Seminars hosted by the Chinese Industry Association for Antimicrobial Materials & Products will further discuss the increasing prominence of these textiles, as well as how the adoption of new antimicrobial textile technologies is expected to evolve in the future. In addition, experts will share the new trends of licensing and IP with case studies for the furniture companies and fabric brands.

2022 China Home Textile Trends

The China Home Textiles Trend Area will feature the research of the China Home Textile Association, The Department of Home Textile Trend Research and Promotion and Concept & Style Fashion Project Group Italy who shared their knowledge, inspirations and exchanged their visions of trend evolutions considering consumer demand, retail expertise, the contract market and new technologies.

Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles – Autumn Edition 2021 will be held concurrently with Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics – Autumn Edition, Yarn Expo Autumn, PH Value and CHIC at the National Exhibition and Convention Center. Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles – Autumn Edition is organised by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd; the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT; and the China Home Textile Association (CHTA).

Cinte Techtextil China 2022 confirmed for September (c) Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd
17.08.2021

Cinte Techtextil China 2022 confirmed for September

The 2022 edition of Cinte Techtextil China has been confirmed to take place from 6 – 8 September at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre. 2021 saw 366 exhibitors and 14,868 visits recorded at the June hybrid event, which offered in-person and digital options for suppliers and buyers.

This year’s edition of Cinte Techtextil China marked the first time the fair was held annually, and the second year physical and online participation options were available, with both aspects well received by exhibitors and visitors.

The 2022 edition of Cinte Techtextil China has been confirmed to take place from 6 – 8 September at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre. 2021 saw 366 exhibitors and 14,868 visits recorded at the June hybrid event, which offered in-person and digital options for suppliers and buyers.

This year’s edition of Cinte Techtextil China marked the first time the fair was held annually, and the second year physical and online participation options were available, with both aspects well received by exhibitors and visitors.

Ms Wendy Wen, Senior General Manager of Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd elaborated: “The response from our exhibitors this year was the Chinese market is still growing strongly, and having an annual edition allows them to benefit from these opportunities on a more regular basis. The domestic economy has shown strong resilience over 2020 and so far in 2021, and this has allowed the technical textiles and nonwovens sector to maintain the growth momentum it has experienced over the past years. As more economies return to normal in 2022, we expect export orders for the sector to receive a further boost which will benefit those overseas companies with business in the Chinese market.”

Cinte Techtextil China’s product categories cover 12 application areas, which comprehensively span the full range of potential uses of modern technical textiles and nonwovens. These categories also span the entire industry, from upstream technology and raw materials providers to finished fabrics, chemicals and other solutions.

Quelle:

Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd