Textination Newsline

Reset
6 results
04.01.2023

Circular Economy: It could all be so simple... or not

Interview with Henning Wehland & Robert Kapferer, Circularity Germany

Interview with Henning Wehland & Robert Kapferer, Circularity Germany

I'm a very curious guy by nature. That's why I offered to help out at a well-known hot dog station in Münster (Germany) this year, to draw attention to the shortage of staff in the gastronomy. I wrote an article about it on LinkedIn, which was in turn reacted to by Ines Chucholowius.
From her profile, I could see that she is a consultant for strategic marketing and communication in the textile industry. Not entirely serious, she offered me a job in her office. Like pushing a button, the pictures in my mind set in: Textile industry, exciting! Merchandising, contacts in the industry, collaborations, and I agreed to a short chat, at the end of which we spoke on the phone and arranged to meet.
 
She told me about her website TEXTINATION.de. And we were already involved in an exciting, heated exchange about perception and truth in the textile industry. Without further ado, we left it at that and I went home with a chunk of new information about an exciting field. Our dialogue on social media continued and eventually Ines offered me the chance to feed my die-hard curiosity with the support of TEXTINATION.de. I could write a blog on the site, about people, products, service providers, producers, startups or trends that interest me, to add to my half-knowledge about the textile industry.

Textile waste into the front ... new T-shirt out the back
During this exchange and a long brainstorming session, certain terms kept tickling my attention:
Circular economy, recycling, recyclable material loops. Circular Economy, Recycling, Recyclables. Even though there are many different definitions and some even distinguishing between different aspects: the former thought from waste that flows back into production as a secondary raw material, a more modern approach avoiding waste already in production - the general consensus is really only that circular economy is a cycle in which waste is used as a source for something new.

Sounds like useful additions for all areas of the manufacturing real economy to me. Ines introduced me to Robert Kapferer: He runs a startup called Circularity Germany in Hamburg. His company, founded in 2021 and consisting of Robert and another partner, is an offshoot of the Dutch-based company Circularity B.V. Its founder Han Hamers, with a degree in child psychology and a professional background in the textile dyeing industry, had the idea five years ago for a production facility that spins new yarn exclusively from textile production waste and old textiles turning it into T-shirts, polo shirts and sweatshirts.
Whether this works, and if so, how, is what I wanted to find out, and Ines and I arranged to meet Robert for a 90-minute online conference.

Robert, originally an industrial engineer, comes from a less sustainable industry. He worked for 11 years as managing director for AVECO Material und Service GmbH, where he was responsible for the workwear of more than 50,000 employees.

At the beginning of our conversation, he emphasizes that a moment in January 2021 changed his life and from then on, he wanted to dedicate himself to the topic of circular economy with all his might. That was when he met Han Hamers, who inspired him to found Circularity Germany. His enthusiasm and passion for the subject sound credible, and he begins to describe the differences between chemical and mechanical recycling methods. In summary, the mechanical process of shredding and the subsequent spinning shortens the fibers and thus restricts their properties for further processing. The advantage lies primarily in the comparatively uncomplicated, fast and more cost-efficient process. In the chemical variant, chemical waste remains, but the processed materials are broken down again into their basic building blocks in such a way that they have almost all the same properties as a so-called virgin raw material. Circularity Germany stands for the mechanical process.

And then comes the sentence that gets all our attention: "We've advanced a spinning technology so much that it relies exclusively on waste-based raw materials."
This sentence almost doesn't stand out because Robert still talks - quite excitingly - about the fact that they are planning a production and manufacturing facility where everything from knitting yarn to relatively fine thread can be spun and then further processed into fabric. And here Ines and I ask intensively: Essential requirements for industrial production still seem to be unresolved, and necessary processes are still in the planning stage. For example, the question of whether to work with pre-consumer or post-consumer waste. Pre-consumer waste is cutting waste from the production of clothes, which corresponds to about 10% of the processed material. Post-consumer waste we know as used textiles.

As long as production still takes place in India, Circularity currently uses mainly pre-consumer waste. These come exclusively from sewing factories in the Tirupur region in the south of India. When using used textiles, which exist in large quantities in Germany (according to a study, 28-40% of all garments produced are thrown away unworn), Circularity produces blended yarns of cotton and polyester. The company does not offer pure cotton yarns.

Textiles are treated with chemicals to varying degrees - workwear in particular cannot do without them. The fact that Han Hemers is also collecting used textile stocks from the Dutch army in order to reintroduce them renewed into the consumer cycle is therefore not reassuring. Military clothing has to be finished with all kinds of additives.

Therefor I ask how he can dispel doubts in a consumer’s mind like mine, with a healthy half-knowledge of mask deals and greenwashing, that a well-intentioned vision will be followed by a dark awakening. This concern cannot yet be resolved after the conversation.

We limit ourselves to what is planned: Robert has the dream of reversing the globalized process of textile production. He wants to end the decoupling of cotton growing regions and far-flung production such as Asia with subsequent shipping of ready-made goods to Europe. In the future, existing used textiles and/or cutting wastes are to be collected on site, recycled and processed locally into new textiles.

I believe him in having this dream. However, some of my questions about sustainability remain unanswered - which is why I have my doubts about whether the idea is currently capable of performing and competing.
What are the reasons for this? For one thing, I think it's always difficult to do necessary pioneering work. Especially when listening to smart comments at the regulars' table that large companies are already working intensively on the principle of circular economy. But sometimes, apart from the term "circular economy" and a vague commitment to it, not much remains.

Circularity Germany is committed to developing a technology based exclusively on waste. The interview points out that this also includes making production more environmentally friendly and eliminating transport routes, which further reduces the burden on the environment. When all the requirements for realizing this dream have been met and a product that is competitive in terms of both quality and price can be launched on the market, it is up to the consumer to decide. Here one would have the credible argument of sustainability and a socially and environmentally fair process. Circularity would then not have to worry about PR.

It needs to be given time and, above all, attention. But perhaps the industry should get involved right here and now, and invest in startups like this and make sure that problems are cleared out of the way. Because one thing has become clear to us in this conversation:

It could all be so simple. Circular economy is achievable, but the road there is still costly and rocky. That's why we wish Robert and his team every success and, above all, perseverance. Thank you for the interview.

Short and sweet: the profile of the company in the attached factsheet for download.

 

 

Photo: Performance Days
18.10.2022

Eco Award & Performance Award for innovative winter fabrics 24/25

  • Jury presents two awards for outstanding fabric Innovation

The next PERFORMANCE DAYS will take place from November 3-4, 2022 at the MOC Ordercenter in Munich. Visitors also have the opportunity to follow the events online. Thanks to the new platform The Loop, all important information is available all year round, including current trends, new material innovations and extended tools for ease of use. The focus of the curated PERFORMANCE FORUM continues in winter honoring the winners of both awards. This year, in addition to a PERFORMANCE AWARD, the jury also presented an ECO PERFORMANCE AWARD.

  • Jury presents two awards for outstanding fabric Innovation

The next PERFORMANCE DAYS will take place from November 3-4, 2022 at the MOC Ordercenter in Munich. Visitors also have the opportunity to follow the events online. Thanks to the new platform The Loop, all important information is available all year round, including current trends, new material innovations and extended tools for ease of use. The focus of the curated PERFORMANCE FORUM continues in winter honoring the winners of both awards. This year, in addition to a PERFORMANCE AWARD, the jury also presented an ECO PERFORMANCE AWARD.

Sustainable & innovative: the award winners of the Winter 2024/25 season
As part of the winter edition of the sourcing fairs, the fabric highlights plus accessory trends in the individ-ual categories for the winter season 2024/25 will be on display at the PERFORMANCE FORUM.
 
Particularly striking this year was the high levels of innovation and quality of many submitted fabrics on the one hand, but on the other hand – also as a result of this year’s Focus Topic – the sustainable component. “We wish to enable our visitors to make the best decision in terms of material selection, also in terms of CO2 neutrality and ultimately also in terms of textile recyclability,” states Marco Weichert, CEO of PERFORMANCE DAYS.  

Nevertheless, the road to CO2 neutrality remains a long one, yet the approaches adopted with the Focus Topic ongoing until the coming spring can be seen in a positive light. In general, manufacturers are increasingly relying on the use of natural fibers when possible, such as Tencel™ or other plant fibers – most of them also prove a low CO2 balance during production. The issue of recycling comes with many new facets and wide spanning trends. The portfolio ranges from the recycling of marine waste, such as old buoys, plastic waste or fishing nets, to the recycling of waste from the automotive and computer industries, such as old car tires or computer chips. Natural dyeing methods are also gaining in importance, as is the return of fabrics to the textile cycle.

In the Marketplace, visitors have the opportunity to view over 19,000 products from exhibitors, including the fabric highlights of the individual categories at the PERFORMANCE FORUM. In order for visitors to experience the fabrics in terms of haptics, design and structure in as realistic a form as possible, the PERFORMANCE FORUM has been equipped with innovative 3D technology, including innovative tools such as 3D images, video animations and U3MA data for download.

The jury has also presented two awards for outstanding fabrics for the Winter Season 2024/25 – with the PERFORMANCE AWARD going to Long Advance Int. Co Ltd., and the ECO PERFORMANCE AWARD to PontetortoSpa.

The ECO PERFORMANCE AWARD goes to “9203/M/RC” from PontetortoSpa: High Performance despite maximum sustainability
The fabric is a blend of 23 % hemp, 69 % recycled polyester and 9 % recycled elastane. Moreover, the material boasts a low CO2 footprint during production and focuses on low release levels of microplastics into the environment. “9203/M/RC” belongs to Pontetorto's Techno Stretch organic series, which boast an excellent 4-way stretch with great elasticity. In addition, it guarantees fast drying and optimal breathability. The polyester yarn is manufactured by the mechanical recycling of plastic bottles. Hemp, the most water–repellent among natural fibers, allows for quick drying and provides optimal comfort. Hemp is considered an extremely sustainable natural fiber due to its origin from an anti–bacterial plant that requires neither pesticides nor chemical fertilizers during its growth and consumes extremely little water.

PERFORMANCE AWARD for “LPD-22015-Y4E” from Long Advanced Int. Co. Ltd.: Perfect recycling for top performance
The monocomponent 2layer fabric is a mixture of 45 % polyester mechanical stretch and 55 % recycled polyester from recycled textiles, laminated with a PET Membrane, with a weight of 147 grams.
The special feature of the “LPD 22015-Y4E” is the recycling of fabric and cutting waste. Waste is thus returned to the textile cycle and used to spin new yarn. In the future, manufacturers will have to ensure that all fabric can be recycled. Accordingly, the production of waste is then reduced by 30 % compared to conventional processes. Furthermore, the jury praised the feel and the extraordinary look of the material.

The entire PERFORMANCE FORUM including both awards can be experienced live at the fair on October 26-27, 2022 in Portland, Oregon, and in Munich at the PERFORMANCE DAYS fair on November 03-04, 2022. As of now, all innovative materials can also be found online in the Marketplace of the PERFORMANCE DAYS Loop, with the option to order free samples directly from the exhibitor.

Photo: pixabay
20.07.2021

Closed-Loop Recycling Pilot Project for Single Use Face Masks

  • Circular economy for plastics: Fraunhofer, SABIC, and Procter & Gamble join forces

The Fraunhofer Cluster of Excellence Circular Plastics Economy CCPE and its Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT have developed an advanced recycling process for used plastics. The pilot project with SABIC and Procter & Gamble serves to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop recycling for single-use facemasks.

The transformation from a linear to a circular plastics economy can only succeed with a multi-stakeholder approach. The Fraunhofer Cluster of Excellence Circular Plastics Economy CCPE combines the competencies of six institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and cooperates closely with partners from industry. Together, we work on systemic, technical and social innovations and keep an eye on the entire life cycle of plastic products.  

  • Circular economy for plastics: Fraunhofer, SABIC, and Procter & Gamble join forces

The Fraunhofer Cluster of Excellence Circular Plastics Economy CCPE and its Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT have developed an advanced recycling process for used plastics. The pilot project with SABIC and Procter & Gamble serves to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop recycling for single-use facemasks.

The transformation from a linear to a circular plastics economy can only succeed with a multi-stakeholder approach. The Fraunhofer Cluster of Excellence Circular Plastics Economy CCPE combines the competencies of six institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and cooperates closely with partners from industry. Together, we work on systemic, technical and social innovations and keep an eye on the entire life cycle of plastic products.  

Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT is a pioneer in sustainable energy and raw materials management by supplying and transferring scientific results into companies, society and politics. Together with partners, the dedicated UMSICHT team researches and develops sustainable products, processes and services which inspire.

Fraunhofer Institute UMSICHT, SABIC and Procter & Gamble (P&G) are collaborating in an innovative circular economy pilot project which aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop recycling of single-use facemasks.

Due to COVID-19, use of billions of disposable facemasks is raising environmental concerns especially when they are thoughtlessly discarded in public spaces, including - parks, open-air venues and beaches. Apart from the challenge of dealing with such huge volumes of essential personal healthcare items in a sustainable way, simply throwing the used masks away for disposal on landfill sites or in incineration plants represents a loss of valuable feedstock for new material.

“Recognizing the challenge, we set out to explore how used facemasks could potentially be returned into the value chain of new facemask production,” says Dr. Peter Dziezok, Director R&D Open Innovation at P&G. “But creating a true circular solution from both a sustainable and an economically feasible perspective takes partners. Therefore, we teamed up with Fraunhofer CCPE and Fraunhofer UMSICHT’s expert scientists and SABIC’s T&I specialists to investigate potential solutions.”

As part of the pilot, P&G collected used facemasks worn by employees or given to visitors at its manufacturing and research sites in Germany. Although those masks are always disposed of responsibly, there was no ideal route in place to recycle them efficiently. To help demonstrate a potential step change in this scenario, special collection bins were set up, and the collected used masks were sent to Fraunhofer for further processing in a dedicated research pyrolysis plant.

“A single-use medical product such as a face mask has high hygiene requirements, both in terms of disposal and production. Mechanical recycling, would have not done the job” explains Dr. Alexander Hofmann, Head of Department Recycling Management at Fraunhofer UMSICHT. “In our solution, therefore, the masks were first automatically shredded and then thermochemically converted to pyrolysis oil.

Pyrolysis breaks the plastic down into molecular fragments under pressure and heat, which will also destroy any residual pollutants or pathogens, such as the Coronavirus. In this way it is possible to produce feedstock for new plastics in virgin quality that can also meet the requirements for medical products” adds Hofmann, who is also Head of Research Department “Advanced Recycling” at Fraunhofer CCPE.

The pyrolysis oil was then sent to SABIC to be used as feedstock for the production of new PP resin. The resins were produced using the widely recognized principle of mass balance to combine the alternative feedstock with fossil-based feedstock in the production process. Mass balance is considered a crucial bridge between today’s linear economy and the more sustainable circular economy of the future.

“The high-quality circular PP polymer obtained in this pilot clearly demonstrates that closed-loop recycling is achievable through active collaboration of players from across the value chain,” emphasizes Mark Vester, Global Circular Economy Leader at SABIC. “The circular material is part of our TRUCIRCLE™ portfolio, aimed at preventing valuable used plastic from becoming waste and at mitigating the depletion of fossil resources.”

Finally, to close the loop, the PP polymer was supplied to P&G, where it was processed into non-woven fibers material. “This pilot project has helped us to assess if the close loop approach could work for hygienic and medical grade plastics.” says Hansjörg Reick, P&G Senior Director Open Innovation. “Of course, further work is needed but the results so far have been very encouraging”.

The entire closed loop pilot project from facemask collection to production was developed and implemented within only seven months. The transferability of advanced recycling to other feedstocks and chemical products is being further researched at Fraunhofer CCPE.

Photo: pixabay
06.07.2021

»Waste4Future«: Today's Waste becomes Tomorrow's Resource

Fraunhofer Institutes pave new ways in plastics recycling

A sustainable society, the renunciation of fossil raw materials, climate-neutral processes - also the chemical industry has committed itself to these goals. For the industry, this means a huge challenge within the next years and decades. This structural change can succeed if all activities - from the raw material base to material flows and process technology to the end of a product's life cycle - are geared towards the goal of sustainable value creation. The key to this is innovation.

Fraunhofer Institutes pave new ways in plastics recycling

A sustainable society, the renunciation of fossil raw materials, climate-neutral processes - also the chemical industry has committed itself to these goals. For the industry, this means a huge challenge within the next years and decades. This structural change can succeed if all activities - from the raw material base to material flows and process technology to the end of a product's life cycle - are geared towards the goal of sustainable value creation. The key to this is innovation.

Plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) or polystyrene (PS), which are currently produced almost entirely from fossil raw materials, are fundamental to many everyday products and modern technologies. The carbon contained in plastics is an important resource for the chemical industry. If it is possible to better identify such carbon-containing components in waste, to recycle them more effectively, and to use them again to produce high-quality raw materials for industry, the carbon can be kept in the cycle. This not only reduces the need for fossil resources, but also pollution with CO2 emissions and plastic waste. At the same time, the security of supply for industry is improved because an additional source of carbon is tapped.

The "Waste4Future" lighthouse project therefore aims to create new opportunities for recycling plastics in order to make the carbon they contain available as a "green" resource for the chemical industry. "We are thus paving the way for a carbon circular economy in which valuable new base molecules are obtained from plastic waste and emissions are largely avoided: Today's waste becomes tomorrow's resource," says Dr.-Ing. Sylvia Schattauer, deputy director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, which is heading the project. "With the know-how of the participating institutes, we want to show how the comprehensive recycling of waste containing plastics without loss of carbon is possible and ultimately economical through interlocking, networked processes." The outcome of the project, which will run until the end of 2023, is expected to be innovative recycling technologies for complex waste that can be used to obtain high-quality recyclates.

Specifically, the development of a holistic, entropy-based assessment model is planned (entropy = measure of the disorder of a system), which will reorganize the recycling chain from process-guided to material-guided. A new type of sorting identifies which materials and in particular which plastic fractions are contained in the waste. Based on this analysis, the total stream is separated and a targeted decision is then made for the resulting sub-streams as to which recycling route is the most technically, ecologically and economically sensible for this specific waste quantity. What cannot be further utilized by means of mechanical recycling is available for chemical recycling, always with the aim of preserving the maximum possible amount of carbon compounds. Burning waste containing plastics at the end of the chain is thus eliminated.

The challenges for research and development are considerable. These include the complex evaluation of both input materials and recyclates according to ecological, economic and technical criteria. Mechanical recycling must be optimized, and processes and technologies must be established for the key points in the material utilization of plastic fractions. In addition, suitable sensor technology must be developed that can reliably identify materials in the sorting system. Machine learning methods will also be used, and the aim is to link them to a digital twin that represents the properties of the processed materials.

Another goal of the project is the automated optimization of the formulation development of recyclates from different material streams. Last but not least, an economic evaluation of the new recycling process chain will be carried out, for example with regard to the effects of rising prices for CO2 certificates or new regulatory requirements. The project consortium will also conduct comprehensive life cycle analysis (LCA) studies for the individual recycling technologies to identify potential environmental risks and opportunities.

For the development of the corresponding solutions, the participating institutes are in close exchange with companies from the chemical industry and plastics processing, waste management, recycling plant construction and recycling plant operation, in order to consider the needs of industry in a targeted manner and thus increase the chances of rapid application of the results achieved.

The following Institutes are involved in the Fraunhofer lighthouse project "Waste4Future":

  • Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS (lead)
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing IZFP
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Materials Recycling and Resource Strategy IWKS
  • Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB
  • Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques FHR
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV
Photo: Pixabay
29.06.2021

A sustainable Circular Economy: Polypropylene Recycling from Carpet Waste

A significant part of carpet waste consists of petroleum-based polypropylene. As a non-recyclable product, disposing of it has previously meant incineration or landfill. However, a new solvent is now making it possible to recover virgin-standard polypropylene from carpet waste — with no perceptible reduction in quality. Developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP and its partners, the process also involves costs that are quite competitive. The development has taken place as part of the ISOPREP EU project.

The EU alone produces around 1.6 million tons of carpet waste every year. The majority of this ends up being sent to landfill or incinerated, as carpet is a composite material that is not suitable for purely mechanical recycling methods. With carpet waste analysed in the project consisting of around a quarter polypropylene, a petroleum-based plastic, the result is a great deal of resources going to waste.

A significant part of carpet waste consists of petroleum-based polypropylene. As a non-recyclable product, disposing of it has previously meant incineration or landfill. However, a new solvent is now making it possible to recover virgin-standard polypropylene from carpet waste — with no perceptible reduction in quality. Developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP and its partners, the process also involves costs that are quite competitive. The development has taken place as part of the ISOPREP EU project.

The EU alone produces around 1.6 million tons of carpet waste every year. The majority of this ends up being sent to landfill or incinerated, as carpet is a composite material that is not suitable for purely mechanical recycling methods. With carpet waste analysed in the project consisting of around a quarter polypropylene, a petroleum-based plastic, the result is a great deal of resources going to waste.

Carpet recycling now possible thanks to a new process
A team of researchers, including from Fraunhofer IBP, has now developed a new recycling process as part of an EU project named ISOPREP (see logo). “For the first time, this is making it possible to recover polypropylene from carpet waste — and the outcome is virgin-quality,” says Maike Illner, a researcher at Fraunhofer IBP. Not only does this allow the recovered polypropylene to be used in lower-quality products (in a process known as downcycling), but it also means that the quality is similar to that of newly manufactured polypropylene, making the material suitable for high-quality products too.

The process is based on a special solvent in the form of an ionic liquid. With the right components, it is able to selectively extract polypropylene from carpet fibers. Before the team of experts applies the solvent, the carpet waste is cleaned — something which involves removing as much of the backing as possible — and broken down. Once the pretreatment is complete, the waste is fed into a reactor in which it undergoes treatment using the solvent. The polypropylene is selectively dissolved in the solvent, a method that provides an effective way of removing dyes and other additives. The process is already being used on an extensive laboratory scale involving several liters of the solvent — and now, the research consortium has set its sights on scaling the process up to a pilot plant with the ability to recycle a ton of carpet waste per day. The pilot plant is set to commence operation by the end of the project in March 2022.

Costs and environmental impact
A recycling process can only be deployed on a large scale if its costs are competitive. For this application, this means retaining as much of the expensive ionic liquid as possible in the cycle. “If loss rates can be kept to one percent or less, there is potential for the costs of the process to rival those of producing new polypropylene,” explains Illner. “We know this thanks to a preliminary economic analysis that we conducted at Fraunhofer IBP.” The analysis involved the Fraunhofer researchers investigating the quantities of material and energy that would be required for the process and what kind of product would be output, and then calculating the associated costs. The team also considered how the costs would develop over the long term.

Fraunhofer IBP is focusing on the ecological aspects of carpet recycling. It is able to draw conclusions from factors including a lifecycle assessment, which sheds light on the emissions that are produced during the recycling process, for example. If the consortium is able to achieve its aim of keeping solvent loss rates to one percent or less in this case too, primary energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions will remain on a similar scale to those involved in producing new polypropylene.

Potential for transfer to other polypropylene waste streams
While carpet waste is the focus of this particular project, the process that has been developed has potential applications far beyond it. The experts involved believe that it could be transferred to a whole host of waste flows that contain polypropylene and are unsuitable for conventional recycling methods. “One example is polypropylene products that contain dyes and additives,” says Illner. “Until now, it has been difficult to extract them from plastic, which means that the recycled polypropylene has only been suitable for use in lower-quality products.” The new process separates the polypropylene not only from other materials, but also from dyes and other additives, allowing it to be used in high-quality applications.

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 820787.

Photo by pexels.com
11.06.2019

From PET Bottles to Textile Recycling: Where Does the Sports Industry Stand?

  • Recycling: The System in the Sports and Outdoor Industry needs Solutions

Old PET bottles are nowadays used to make polyester clothing, and there are also sports jerseys, outdoor jackets, shirts, trousers and bikinis made of plastic waste. But can textiles and shoes also be recycled? The good news is that some solutions have already been found. However, textiles and shoes can only be recycled with a massive reduction in quality.
 
Recycling of Shoes Possible Since 2018
The world's first industrial recycling plant for all types of footwear has been in operation in Germany since June 2018. It was established by Soex Recycling Germany GmbH from Bitterfeld, which in cooperation with European companies has developed a shoe recycling plant within five years.

More information:
Recycling recycling fibers
Source:

Messe München GmbH